THURWE PRIVATE WILDLIFE PARK: THE RIM OF THE VALLEY OF THE ELEPHANTS [The Nyika Peace Park: The Vwaza - Luangwa - Nyika - Lake Malawi Ecosystem].
I feel deeply humbled yet honored to present the following document as a modest exercise toward the nascent thinking and practice of Sustainable Development as a Derivative of Sustainability.
A PREAMBLE OF A PRIVATE WILDLIFE PARK [Royal/Ministerial Private Park]
Bequeathed to John Mkandawire (JM) in 2008 as Steward & President of Mwang'onga Private Wildlife Park, courtesy of:
i. The Themba Chikulamayembe, Paramount Chief of Rumphi, JM's Uncle, in recognition of JM's Dad, Mwango'nga, for outstanding contribution to education, public life and as a Livingstone Award Laureate.
ii. The Themba's Sister, JM's Dearest Mom, Nya Chikulamayembe's Daughter; Her Noble Inspiration.
iii. The Minister of Education and Member of Parliament emeritus; Principal emeritus of Robert Laws College [Oxford & Cambridge Universities Mission to Africa - Livingstonia Synod]; elected as the first President of the Teachers' Association of Malawi - JM's Dad: Mwang'onga Mkandawire.
Vision: Promulgation of Peace, Science and Sustainability.
Mission: Stewardship and Demonstration of Sustainable Development.
i. Preservation of Ecological Integrity - Preservation of Life-Support Systems -
The Way Forward:
a) In situ Intrinsic Valuation serves to:
i. preserve the microcosm of natureís evolution and natural history of nearly 15 billion years emanating as the aether, quantum field, or strings through quarks, electrons, and accompanying subatomic particles to molecules, cells, organisms, species, populations, ecosystems and the living planet: complex, dynamic, diverse, stable, regenerative systems; self-sustaining and self-regulating ecological equilibria.
ii. demonstrate the nature of self-sustaining energy-matter networks: natural energy behavior and pattern in the universe as planetary cybernetics which, unperturbed, express the earthís homeostasis. These earthís anatomical and physiological attributes underpin the nascent scholarship of planetary medicine and planetary health: cosmic integrity.
iii. serves as the principal model, gold standard as well as benchmark for the structure and function of nature in the universe. This is, appreciably, equivalent to the Giza Pyramid - the repository of human and divine wisdom by the sages of antiquity for posterity. It is natureís own ultimate library and nature's gift to posterity, the preservation of a unique natural heritage.
b) In situ Extrinsic Valuation: functions as a model of sustainability (sustainable development) of the earth, also termed Spaceship Earth, a fitting simile for a planet hurtling through space and time, underpinned by peace and science. This is extrinsic valuation of nature and humanity - the institution of a comprehensive suite of eco-infrastructure, eco-enterprise and eco-preservation exemplified with the nascent network of coast-to-coast, trans-continental peace parks and wild kingdoms in Southern Africa: creation of ecotopia. This also serves as Noahís Ark.
c) Ex situ Promulgation and Implementation of Planetary (Global) Sustainability - translation of sustainability from eco-states to nation states, employing the creation and institution of comprehensive suite of eco-infrastructure, eco-enterprise and ecological restoration: the insurance against environmental collapse of a living planet as ex situ (lab) gene preservation and evaluation; toward the temporal, spatial balance and integrity of nature with humanity.
This is also the inception of a resource and energy-efficient, life-friendly eco-infrastructure; deployment of renewable energy such as solar, wind, pyramid energy, aether-spacenet and inerton field; Tesla wireless energy, etc; water, food, habitat, public health, education; communications - sustainable technologies such as sun-powered satellite networks and related devices; in situ (wild) as well as ex situ (laboratory) gene evaluation and preservation; ecosystem reconstitution.
What are the Planetís Life-support Systems?
a. Clean Air (Atmosphere)
b. Clean Water (Hydrosphere):
Water Catchment, Aquifer/Ground Water, Rivers, Lakes and Oceans
c. Flora and Fauna (Biosphere): Biodiversity and Habitat Conservation - Gene pool: Genetic and Species Diversity; Carbon Sink; Ecosystem Integrity
d. Land and Soils (Lithosphere/Geosphere)
ii. Mitigation of Environmental Degradation - Mitigation of Life-Support Systems/ Ecosystems Collapse:
Ecological Easement ensures the attenuation of environmental degradation; creation of the carbon sink; alleviation of mass species extinction, global warming and climate change, desertification, pollution, deforestation, arable soil erosion, gene erosion, aquifer depletion; human extinction; environmental degradationís final end-point, regrettably, is the overall ecological systems collapse. This is, equally sadly, a state of thermodynamic equilibrium - entropy, contrasted to ecological equilibrium of healthy climax ecosystems such as a protected area, biosphere, national or private park as well as a wild kingdom.
iii. Actualization of Complex Ecosystem Integrity:
This is exemplified with the creation and integration of public and private protected areas in Southern Africa toward Functional Climax Ecosystems as an Integrated Network; partnership and linkage of government (public), private, indigenous or local populace toward sustainability; creation of a transboundary mega-peace park for sustainable development. The network of protected areas and peace parks serves the following strategic functions, including:
a. Model Eco-enterprise, Eco-infrastructure & Eco-preservation:
Parks, therefore, function as eco-states or ecotopia and models of fully functional and healthy nation-states based on peace and science as opposed to any ideology or dogma.
The following inherent scientific tenets constitute sustainability which employs inevitably natureís own capacity for self-assembly of energy, matter, and life toward cosmic integrity. The tenets entail renewable energy, water, habitat, eco-food production and throughput, education, health , communication infrastructure: solar - powered, satellite-linked networks and internet; eco-roads: eco-infrastructure, eco-enterprise and eco-preservation. This engenders eco-civilization or green civilization across the board involving culture, society, economy and polity.
b. Nature's Extrinsic Valuation:
Dependence and correlation of humanity on the state of nature and attendant carrying capacity - the earthís life support systems: air, water, land and biodiversity: habitat and shelter; renewable (plants and animals) and non-renewable natural resources throughput comprised of natural resources extraction, processing, allocation; utilization and consumption, waste sinks; cycles, including spirituality and aesthesia, i.e., air, water, land, food, habitat, medicine, industry: ecological goods and services worth at least 50 trillion dollars a year to the world's economy.
iv. Scientific Research, Management and Education:
Gene Evaluation and Preservation; Prevention of Gene Erosion and Species Extinction; Threatened and Endangered Species Recovery Employing Assisted Reproduction - Nuclear Transfer Series, Embryo Reconstitution and Transfer; Collection and Banking of Biomaterials; Ecosystem Reconstitution.
v. Conservation Science and Education:
Promulgation of Public Policy - Sustainable Development as a Derivative of Sustainability.
End of Preamble.
PRIVATE WILDLIFE PARK CONSTITUTION- STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION:
A. WILDLIFE PARK CARRYING CAPACITY - FLORA & FAUNA
i. Area: 1,000 acres
ii. Flora: Comparable to the Vwaza Wildlife Reserve plant community - The Rim of the Valley of the Elephants, Luangwa National Park - A Living Pleistocene; Tropical Flora: Acasia, Combretum, Palm, Mopane, Brachystegia Bushveld, Thicket - Savanna; Wwaza.
iii. Fauna: Translocation of species from the adjacent Vwaza ( 15 minutes drive), courtesy of the Government of Malawi, Ministry of Tourism, Parks and Wildlife; Peace Parks Foundation :
Mammals: 1. Elephant 2. Giraffe 3. Zebra (wild horses) 4. Impala 5. Eland (wild cattle) 6. Roan Antelope 7. Serval Cat 8. Genet Cat 9. Cheetah 10. Possibly Lion.
Birds (Avifauna): 1. Ostrich. 2. Sacred Ibis 3. Flamingo 4. Storks. 5. Guinea Fowl 6.Francolin 7. Crowned and Wattled Cranes 8. Lilac-breasted roller 9. Sun birds, etc.
B. WILDLIFE PARK INFRASTRUCTURE:
Emphasis and Priority on
1. SOLAR POWER
2.GRAVITY-POWERED SPRING WATER from the NYIKA ( Nyika National Park)
3. ENDANGERED OR THREATENED SPECIES RECOVERY - CHEETAH, GIRAFFE & OSTRITCH.
i. Energy: 3 Solar Power Units
ii.Water Infrastructure - Aquifer and Nyika National Park Gravity-powered Spring Water: Park Stream, 5 Regular Water Holes, 2 Floodlit Water Holes cum Wildlife Viewing Hide/Deck; wildlife watching at night; Plumbing for relevant park facilities.
iii. Science and Education Center: a. Science and Nature Hall - Natural History and Wildlife Cinema b. Internet Cafe c. Laboratory/Science Facility for Biocollection, etc.
iv. Visitor Accommodation: a. Wildlife Lodge. b. 3 Tented Camps.
v. Solar Wildlife Habituation Fence - not for enclosure, habituation only.
vi. Scientist/Manager's and Staff Accommodation.
a. 2 Safari/Science Park Jeeps. b. 5 Trail Bikes. c. 2 Pickup Trucks.
WILDLIFE PARK PLAN:
MWANG'ONGA PRIVATE WILDLIFE PARK:
VISION: This is a quest toward the actualization of Millennium Renaissance; it entails the Promulgation of Peace, Science and Sustainability.
MISSION: Stewardship and Demonstration of Sustainable Development as a Derivative of Sustainability.
Sustainable Development is the temporal and spatial integrity of nature and human civilization: culture, society, economy and polity, underpinned by natureís self-sustaining and self-regulating energy networks which engender natureís dynamic equilibria and stability. It inherently promulgates the actualization of a comprehensive suite of eco-infrastructure, eco-enterprise and eco-preservation.
The Private Wildlife Park.
The estate serves as a flagship private wildlife park toward ecosystem stewardship and demonstration of sustainability for the near term as well as posterity. Ecosystem stewardship will be founded on the rigor of the scientific paradigm of sustainable development. It will underscore the practical application of post-modern scholarship toward Millennium (African) Renaissance and global security as a function of the state of nature and natural resources - the state of the planet. The estate naturally constitutes a vital and indispensable biocorridor for ecosystem reconstitution in respect of the nascent SADCC Transfrontier Conservation Areas and Peace Parks, undertaken by the Peace Parks Foundation in concert with the governments of Southern Africa (SADC). The transboundary peace parks and conservation areas constitute one of the most expansive networks of protected areas in the world. They are, indeed, part of a world-wide network of protected areas.
The private park is advantageously located between the Nyika National Park and Vwaza Wildlife Reserve. This is also the rim of the Valley of the Elephants, the Luangwa National Park system in Eastern Zambia. The Vwaza, Luangwa, the Nyika and Lake Malawi form a contiguous peace park and a representative, climax ecosystem of Northern Malawi and Eastern Zambia, sustaining a rich array and diversity of life; in fact, it is one of the planet earth's hot-spots of mega-genetic diversity and biodiversity. This is nature as a model of the most efficient, complex, dynamic yet stable, self-managing, self-regulating and self-sustaining, pollution-free factory of life ever designed and engineered. It is responsible for the creation, in perpetuity, of the bushveld, relic tropical rainforests, avifauna as well as all fauna, inhabiting the earthís unique Rift Valley landscape . It is a microcosmic exemplar of a living planet and attendant planetary medicine as frontier renaissance disciplines of scholarship.
The elephant, the largest terrestrial mammal, inhabited this ecosystem in their largest natural population numbers in the course of the species evolution - more than anywhere on earth, over 100,000 strong, until their decimation at the hands of the human species, in the twentieth century, to a mere 20,000.
Transboundary Peace Parks have already the approval of SADC, the Southern African Development Community comprising 15 nations of Southern Africa, with nearly all heads of state in the region as honorary patrons. These protected areas are increasingly administered under relevant national and international environmental laws, treaties, declarations, conventions as well as the all encompassing and evolving Earth Charter. (See Reference - DataAdve.net).
Scientific studies show that integration of protected areas and ecosystems tend to engender optimal land use regimes in Southern Africa; this path toward development is projected to evolve into Southern African mainstay economy, ahead of gold and diamond, as it is based on the management of renewable natural resources: flora and fauna. This developmental strategy will likely mitigate environmental degradation and ecosystem collapse, all-too-often associated with pollution-prone and resource-depleting industries. Ecotourism and related hospitality industries, by most acclaim, constitute the largest of any segment of the world economy, already worth several billion dollars. The indigenous populace who tended to be marginalized from conventional enterprise act as co-managers of their natural heritage; they are, in fact, interested parties as well as stakeholders at the table of sustainable development.
The private wildlife park will also serve as a multipurpose model for wildlife science and management. The principal focus will be endangered species recovery; the park will underpin ecotourism as a model of wildlife stewardship; sustainability toward food production, complementing current modes of food production; gene preservation and sustainable gene utilization for production of medicine and pharmaceuticals in traditional medicine as well as conventional medicine, the blooming sourcing of biomolecules by biotechnology and research institutes across the globe. The estate will also function as a research and education center for preservation of the environment.
The park will utilize solar power which will demonstrate the efficacy of alternative, clean and renewable energy over fossil fuels. Solar power also serves to mitigate deforestation and desertification; mitigation of climate change and global warming as a result of carbon sink extirpation due to human perpetrated loss of flora with attendant environmental collapse.
The park is, therefore, subdivided into diverse units which should function synergistically with each other. The units operate together as a relatively complex , dynamic, and diverse, yet stable, ecosphere. The park also addresses the imperative toward a strategic management regime of natural resources which should engender alternative and sustainable livelihoods, for all time. Such a regime ought to be a function of the wise utilization of locally available renewable, biotic resources. The estate exemplifies a paradigm shift from an economy primarily dependent on agriculture, with the accompanying problems of gene or soil erosion and overall ecosystem extirpation, toward diversified human enterprise. The shift should inevitably allay the adverse impact flora denudation of a historically important yet receding tobacco industry in Malawi and worldwide.
I. ECOSYSTEM RECONSTITUTION: Wildlife Conservation and Endangered Species Recovery - Creation of A Wildlife Park:
There are several species in Malawi which were once part of a rich plethora of plant and animal life. These species are currently threatened, endangered or locally extinct. There is a dire need to reintroduce these species to enhance and recover Malawiís natural wealth as well as heritage. Examples of these species include Elephant, Giraffe, Rhino, Cheetah, Ostrich, Impala, and the magnificent wild horse, the Zebra. Birds naturally compliment the quest. Ostrich, Flamingo, the Crowned or Wattled Crane, and Storks are fitting examples. It is envisioned that the management of these endangered species will initially employ natural breeding but gradually include a battery of assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo reconstitution (nuclear transfer - embryonic, sperm or somatic cell transfer) as well as embryo transfer technologies. This repertoire of mega-fauna and avifauna as well as the indigenous bushveld flora constitute a potentially luring package for ecotourism - an ample, natural component toward sustainable development.
The Department of National Parks and Wildlife in Malawi are on record advocating conservation of wildlife on private land, complementing the current capacity of national parks. This is in view of the seemingly tenuous state of nature preservation in Malawi. This is also the envisioned policy of the Peace Parks Foundation in Southern Africa, promulgating the creation of an expansive, coast-to-coast network of peace parks in the region as the foundation for sustainable development. This concept entails the integration of distant or far-flung national parks, employing private wildlife parks as bio-corridors between national parks. Both institutions, National Parks and Wildlife in Malawi and the Peace Parks Foundation have either ongoing translocation programs or have the intent to create founder populations for endangered species in national as well as private wildlife parks. The prospective private park is ideally situated. (Please see DataAdve.net). It is a mere 15 minutes away by road from the unique Vwaza/Nyika/Luangwa/Lake Malawi Ecosystem which should serve as the donor species park for reconstitution of the Thurwe Private Wildlife Park. The Vwaza/Nyika/Luangwa/Lake Malawi Ecosystem has an existing road infrastructure and a fly-in network across its expanse which should facilitate logistics and management tasks for the creation of the park.
II. ECOSYSTEM RECONSTITUTION:
Preservation of Life-support Systems:
The management of the wildlife park as an intact ecosystem serves as a hedge against environmental degradation. It preserves natureís integrity as it has evolved over billions of years toward a uniquely climax, dynamic, diverse and stable ecosystem: a natural system in ecological equilibrium. The park is, accordingly, a microcosm of the planet earth's evolution. The park, therefore, preserves the invaluable ecosphere, the earth's local universe or space and its constituent and representative array of life. The estate further preserves the ecosphereís life-support systems which provide innumerable ecological goods and services for nature and, more critically, the entire course of human enterprise and, indeed, civilization. Human life and enterprise exist as a function of natural resources throughput as well as natureís goods and services: extraction, processing and manufacture; allocation, utilization and consumption; sink as well as cycle. Natural capital comprises water, food, medicine; it engenders human industry; human enterprise as goods and services. This is natural capital's extrinsic value as human utility. There are four life-support systems of planet earth - they warrant urgent stewardship: a. the geosphere or lithosphere (land and soils as scaffold of the earth's ecosystem, the plant and animal community; ensures agriculture for human food production) b. the hydrosphere (aquifer, water catchment areas, streams, rivers, lakes and oceans) c. atmosphere (several protective layers: the troposphere, stratosphere, including the ultra-violet shielding ozone layer; ionosphere and exosphere); d. biosphere (biodiversity - genes, species, populations and communities of plant and animal life and habitat as well as ecosystems).
The Carbon Sink serves as an illustration of the myriad functions of life support- systems. The biosphereís flora, the natural plant community, sequester carbon dioxide from the air generated by world-wide industry. A light but growing industry in Malawi and Southern Africa exacerbates transboundary carbon emissions. Carbon dioxide and related global greenhouse emissions present a huge threat to the overall integrity, health and security of the planet as they inevitably lead to global warming and, perhaps, more pervasively, climate change. The attendant ripple effect elicits desertification, drought, species extinction, flooding or inundation of low-lying human and wildlife habitat as was witnessed recently in Mozambique, Botswana and parts of South Africa. Flora also serve as a natural filter and impediment against storm run-off that would otherwise overwhelm downstream habitat, including power-generating hydro systems. The resulting shortage of clean and renewable energy necessitates, unfortunately, additional fossil energy utilization and carbon dioxide pollution as well as flora denudation - a vicious cycle toward ecosystem collapse.
III. WILDLIFE CONSERVATION: Gene Pool Sustainable Utilization: Food, Biomedicine, Traditional Medicine and Industry.
The park will serve as a demonstration resource for gene evaluation, preservation and sustainable utilization. This involves experimental procurement of endemic biodiversity, committed toward threatened and endangered species recovery - ostrich, giraffe, or impala; employment of biodiversity as food, medicine or industrial products. This enterprise will naturally be a function of the indigenous gene pool services. Ostrich will also be introduced for a similar service. Wild fowl breeding and egg production has already been tried by the prospective park staff; this was done successfully albeit on an experimental scale. The Private Wildlife Park should offer an ideal setting for this undertaking, enriching, diversifying and complementing current modes of food production for animal protein.
There is a growing consumer demand all over the world for natural or organic food produce for improvement or sustenance of overall public health. Wild generation of food, for example, eliminates the use of expensive and polluting pesticides and fertilizers. These chemicals have often been proven to be harmful to the environment as well as people, resulting in manifold and wide-ranging effects such as birth defects, cancer or immune system dysfunction. The bulk of human affront and disease, up to 90%, has recently been correlated to the state of the environment. Only a mere 10% of the cases could, otherwise, be medicalized in a healthy environment, hugely reducing the case load off medical personnel. This also renders 90% of all diseases afflicting humanity as preventable in a healthy environment along with natural, organic nutrition.
The park will, in addition, serve as a model resource for sustainable gene utilization in conventional medicine, the blooming sourcing of biomolecules by biotechnology and research institutes across the globe. The park is situated within a mega-genetic diversity ecosystem, containing the species-rich, relic tropical biota, including evergreen rain forests and relatives of the fine bush tea of Cape Flora of South Africa. Fine Bush has been preserved as Rooibos Red or Green Tea. Scientific studies conducted mostly in South Africa, Japan and , to some extent, labs in the US as well as Britain increasingly prove Rooibos Tea to essentially serve as an elixir. This phenomenon emanates from the plantís superior anti-oxidant activity in cells, along with multiple therapeutic attributes. Red Tea may be magical therapy for heart disease, high blood pressure, cancer, immune dysfunction, insomnia, liver disease, high cholesterol levels, kidney dysfunction; Animal model studies in the US have shown a positive correlation between uptake of Red Tea and marked improvement in longevity. This list is by no means exhaustive. The biotic resource is also vital for traditional medicine as an alternative to conventional medicine in developing countries where conventional medicine may be unaffordable by many. The government, local medical institutes and traditional healers typically work together toward adoption and standardization of indigenous knowledge; to engender equity, empowerment, access, and co-management of natural resources of the local populace as principal stake-holders.
Biomolecules, much less the whole array of flora and fauna, should be increasingly sought after with the advent of the emerging generation of intelligence-enhanced super computers, relying on genetic code for such capacity as well as the emerging field of biomimicry in desperate fields of medicine, nanotechnology, engineering, behavior, and biotechnology.
IV. SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND CONSERVATION
This unit will function as an education and interpretation center for students and tourists about the structure and function of the park, its biotic natural constitution. It will also, for future work, serve as a PE Lab - gene pool evaluation and preservation unit - conducted as a Biomaterial Bank, Embryo Reconstitution Unit (Nuclear Transfer Series Technology) and Embryo Transfer Unit for endangered species recovery. Its primary task will be the demonstration, application and practice of environmentally-friendly and sustainable technologies for the evaluation as well as preservation of renewable genetic resources, the creation and amplification of the endemic gene pool of threatened and endangered species. The renewable genetic information found within the indigenous mega-gene pool, the renewable green gold, is increasingly utilized in the production of pharmaceutical proteins and metabolites for gene therapy in various parts of the world. It may as well underpin the emergence of advanced supercomputers employing genetic code. This is yet unrealized potential for the monetization of natural capital - flora and fauna.
V. SOLAR POWER GENERATION: Demonstration of Solar Power as Sustainable Technology.
The park will exclusively use renewable power for all its applications. It will utilize primarily solar power, emanating from the sun, the earth's ultimate source of energy supporting and sustaining all life and the earth's regulation of all matter and energy. This should create a unique opportunity to demonstrate to the local community and the general public the efficacy of clean and renewable energy as the foundation of a sustainable civilization. This would patently highlight the sun as the principal energy that sustains our planet and the diversity of life. It is worthy noting that the sun's energy cascades downstream as wind energy. It is, yet, poorly utilized; if at all. Solar power tends to mitigate ecosystems collapse, especially deforestation - a function of wanton wood energy demand in Africa. This tendency has several negative downstream impacts such as water catchment loss, aquifer or groundwater depletion, desertification, flooding and habitat inundation; gene and soil erosion as well as global warming and climate change. The sun is probably the most important natural resource in Africa. Sadly, it is unwittingly underutilized. It is, at best, wasted energy. Solar should ultimately serve as a magnet for rural eco-development and attendant eco-infrastructure deployment, dispersing the populace away from overstretched cities and overcrowded masses.
The wildlife park, therefore, serves as a conservancy of natural capital, including such services as the regulation of clean air, clean water, viable land and soil as well as matter and energy. It also preserves biodiversity - the local flora and fauna and attendant gene pool as a food-cum-medicine bank, much less insurance against gene erosion. Bio-prospectors, the world over, increasingly seek novel genes for scientific evaluation and utilization as pharmaceutical products toward gene therapy. Flora and fauna supply the bulk of raw materials for industry. The latter embodies emerging supercomputing technologies employing genetic code.
The park, ultimately, protects a landscape, scenery as well as wildlife which are vital to humankind's restoration of physical and spiritual health; the park serves as a temple and a sanctuary for overall self-reconstitution. Ostensibly, such restorative attributes may be solely accorded by the unspoiled beauty and integrity of nature.
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